When continuous predictors are available—and potentially important—in
explaining a categorical outcome, models for that outcome include:
logistic regression (binary response), the proportional odds model
(ordered polytomous response), multinomial (generalized) logistic
regression. Many of these are special cases of the generalized linear
model using the `"poisson"`

or `"binomial"`

family
and their relatives.

I don’t go into fitting such models here, but I would be remiss not
to illustrate some visualizations in `vcd`

that are helpful
here. The first of these is the spine plot or spinogram (Hummel, 1996), produced with
`spine()`

. These are special cases of mosaic plots with
specific spacing and shading to show how a categorical response varies
with a continuous or categorical predictor.

They are also a generalization of stacked bar plots where not the
heights but the *widths* of the bars corresponds to the relative
frequencies of `x`

. The heights of the bars then correspond
to the conditional relative frequencies of `y`

in every
`x`

group.

** Example**: For the

`Arthritis`

data, we can see how `Improved`

varies with `Age`

as follows. `spine()`

takes a formula of the form
`y ~ x`

with a single dependent factor and a single
explanatory variable `x`

(a numeric variable or a factor).
The range of a numeric variable`x`

is divided into intervals
based on the `breaks`

argument, and stacked bars are drawn to
show the distribution of `y`

as `x`

varies. As
shown below, the discrete table that is visualized is returned by the
function.```
(spine(Improved ~ Age, data = Arthritis, breaks = 3))
## Improved
## Age None Some Marked
## [20,40] 10 3 2
## (40,60] 21 3 17
## (60,80] 11 8 9
(spine(Improved ~ Age, data = Arthritis, breaks = "Scott"))
## Improved
## Age None Some Marked
## [20,30] 6 1 0
## (30,40] 4 2 2
## (40,50] 9 0 3
## (50,60] 12 3 14
## (60,70] 11 8 8
## (70,80] 0 0 1
```

The conditional density plot (Hofmann &
Theus, 2005) is a further generalization. This visualization
technique is similar to spinograms, but uses a smoothing approach rather
than discretizing the explanatory variable. As well, it uses the
original `x`

axis and not a distorted one.

In such plots, it is useful to also see the distribution of the
observations across the horizontal axis, e.g., with a `rug()`

plot. @ref{fig:cd-plot} uses `cdplot()`

from the
`graphics`

package rather than `cd_plot()`

from
`vcd`

, and is produced with

From this figure it can be easily seen that the proportion of patients reporting Some or Marked improvement increases with Age, but there are some peculiar bumps in the distribution. These may be real or artifactual, but they would be hard to see with most other visualization methods. When we switch from non-parametric data exploration to parametric statistical models, such effects are easily missed.

`ggplot2 plots`

The nonparametric conditional density plot uses smoothing methods to convey the distributions of the response variable, but displays that are simpler to interpret can often be obtained by plotting the predicted response from a parametric model.

For complex `glm()`

models with interaction effects, the
`effects`

package provides the most useful displays, plotting
the predicted values for a given term, averaging over other predictors
not included in that term. I don’t illustrate this here, but see Fox & Weisberg (2018),Fox (2003) and
`help(package="effects")`

.

Here I just briefly illustrate the capabilities of the
`ggplot2`

package for model-smoothed plots of categorical
responses in `glm()`

models.

** Example**: The

`Donner`

data frame
in `vcdExtra`

gives details on the survival of 90 members of
the Donner party, a group of people who attempted to migrate to
California in 1846. They were trapped by an early blizzard on the
eastern side of the Sierra Nevada mountains, and before they could be
rescued, nearly half of the party had died. What factors affected who
lived and who died?```
data(Donner, package="vcdExtra")
str(Donner)
## 'data.frame': 90 obs. of 5 variables:
## $ family : Factor w/ 10 levels "Breen","Donner",..: 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ...
## $ age : int 23 13 1 5 14 40 51 9 3 8 ...
## $ sex : Factor w/ 2 levels "Female","Male": 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 ...
## $ survived: int 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ...
## $ death : POSIXct, format: "1846-12-29" NA ...
```

A potential model of interest is the logistic regression model for
\(Pr(survived)\), allowing separate
fits for males and females as a function of `age`

. The key to
this is the `stat_smooth()`

function, using
`method = "glm", method.args = list(family = binomial)`

. The
`formula = y ~ x`

specifies a linear fit on the logit scale
(@ref{fig:donner3}, left)

```
# separate linear fits on age for M/F
ggplot(Donner, aes(age, survived, color = sex)) +
geom_point(position = position_jitter(height = 0.02, width = 0)) +
stat_smooth(method = "glm",
method.args = list(family = binomial),
formula = y ~ x,
alpha = 0.2, size=2, aes(fill = sex))
```

Alternatively, we can allow a quadratic relation with
`age`

by specifying `formula = y ~ poly(x,2)`

((**ref?**)(fig:donner3),
right).

```
# separate quadratics
ggplot(Donner, aes(age, survived, color = sex)) +
geom_point(position = position_jitter(height = 0.02, width = 0)) +
stat_smooth(method = "glm",
method.args = list(family = binomial),
formula = y ~ poly(x,2),
alpha = 0.2, size=2, aes(fill = sex))
```

These plots very nicely show (a) the fitted \(Pr(survived)\) for males and females; (b) confidence bands around the smoothed model fits and (c) the individual observations by jittered points at 0 and 1 for those who died and survived, respectively.

Fox, J. (2003). Effect displays in R for generalised linear
models. *Journal of Statistical Software*, *8*(15), 1–27.
http://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v008.i15

Fox, J., & Weisberg, S. (2018). Visualizing fit and lack of fit in
complex regression models with predictor effect plots and partial
residuals. *Journal of Statistical Software*, *87*(9),
1–27. http://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v087.i09

Hofmann, H., & Theus, M. (2005). *Interactive graphics for
visualizing conditional distributions*.

Hummel, J. (1996). Linked bar charts: Analysing categorical data
graphically. *Computational Statistics*, *11*, 23–33.