To cite the dops package in publications use:

Rusch T, de Leeuw J, Mair P (2023). cops: Cluster Optimized Proximity Scaling. R package version 1.3-1.

If cops() is used, please cite:

Rusch T, Mair P, Hornik K (2021). “Cluster Optimized Proximity Scaling.” Journal of Computational and Graphical Statistics, 1-12. doi:10.1080/10618600.2020.1869027.

If powerStressMin() is used, please cite:

de Leeuw J, Groenen P, Mair P (2016). “Minimizing rstress using majorization.” UCLA, Los Angeles.

Corresponding BibTeX entries:

    title = {cops: Cluster Optimized Proximity Scaling},
    author = {Thomas Rusch and Jan {de Leeuw} and Patrick Mair},
    year = {2023},
    note = {R package version 1.3-1},
    author = {Thomas Rusch and Patrick Mair and Kurt Hornik},
    title = {Cluster Optimized Proximity Scaling},
    journal = {Journal of Computational and Graphical Statistics},
    year = {2021},
    number = {0},
    issue = {0},
    pages = {1-12},
    doi = {10.1080/10618600.2020.1869027},
    author = {Jan {de Leeuw} and Patrick Groenen and Patrick Mair},
    title = {Minimizing rstress using majorization},
    address = {Los Angeles},
    institution = {UCLA},
    series = {UCLA Statistics Preprint Series},
    year = {2016},
    url = {},